Portugal and Brazil in Transition by Raymond S. Sayers

By Raymond S. Sayers

Portugal and Brazil in Transition used to be first released in 1968. Minnesota Archive variants makes use of electronic know-how to make long-unavailable books once more available, and are released unaltered from the unique collage of Minnesota Press editions.

Through a sequence of essays on quite a few facets of Portuguese and Brazilian tradition, this e-book provides an enlightening photo of up to date civilization within the nations and a forecast of what the following 20 years or so might deliver. The authors talk about matters in such simple fields as literature, linguistics, background, the social sciences, geography, the effective arts, song, and usual technological know-how. Taken as a complete, the contents exhibit the good judgment of organizing a quantity now not round a geographical notion yet, really, round a ancient suggestion, consequently "the international the Portuguese created," as Gilberto Freyre defined it.

The essays are according to papers that got on the 6th overseas Colloquium of Luso-Brazilian reports, held within the usa in 1966. as well as the essays, the e-book comprises the textual content of reviews and dialogue concerning the papers. There are twenty-seven significant essays by means of as many members and reviews by way of a couple of discussants.

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This is especially so because thorough analyses of Portuguese social and cultural history are completely absent, as are editions of countless authors. Nor are there any up-todate technical and critical methods for the study of these authors and texts, and no well-developed Portuguese science for the establishment of them. If we consider the present situation of great writers like Fernao Lopes and Gil Vicente, we shall realize that what some Portuguese and many foreign writers have done is far from being enough to raise the study of Portuguese literature in Portugal above the level of impressionistic, pragmatic sophistry which is now applied in the criticism of 40 LITERATURE modern writers and in the editing of the classics.

It is obvious that literary and textual criticism should not be the exclusive appanage of Portuguese scholars. Yet there must be much of this work that the Portuguese — who are steeped in the national culture, who are close to archives and libraries, and who, finally, must be interested in the systematic re-evaluation of their literature — should be capable of doing better than others. This does not mean that some others have not been doing what the Portuguese have failed to do. Critics of any great literature have at their disposal a wealth of material and scholarship, already explored and organized, which greatly facilitates research in any specialized area.

The Portuguese never had the means to establish themselves with the cultural solidarity of the Spanish and the English, either because they lacked the means, or because the Portuguese ruling classes were incapable of reasoning on the universal scale on which they dreamed of living. Nevertheless, Portugal made Brazil. Whatever the positive measures that were taken more or less intelligently at various times by the Portuguese administration and that helped give shape and being to Brazil, whatever effect four centuries of Portuguese immigration may have had in providing the basic element of the Brazilian population, whatever influence Portuguese culture may have had on the creation of Brazilian culture, the harsh truth remains (despite academic and official greetings to the contrary) that Brazil does not have the respect and love for Portugal that, mutually recriminatory as they may often be, the United States has for England and Spanish-speaking countries have for Spain.

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