Fog, Smog, and Poisoned Rain (Facts on File Dangerous by Michael Allaby

By Michael Allaby

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Extra info for Fog, Smog, and Poisoned Rain (Facts on File Dangerous Weather Series)

Sample text

Usually it clears altogether, but a trace may remain as a layer of low stratus cloud. Advection fog Fog will also form when moist, warm air moves over a cold surface. This is advection fog. Advection is the transport of heat by the horizontal movement of air or water (such as ocean currents). The air in contact with the surface is chilled, turbulent movements of the air mix it with the air above, lowering its temperature, and water vapor condenses. Advection fogs are deeper than radiation fogs, extending up to 2,000 feet (600 m) above the surface.

Water and climate Water molecules absorb latent heat from their surroundings, and when they release it they release it into their surroundings. The absorption of latent heat does not raise or lower the temperature of the water—it is used to break hydrogen bonds and is released when the bonds reform—but it does alter the temperature of the surroundings. The absorption and release of latent heat is another way by which energy is transported through the air. In the tropics, where the weather is hot, water evaporates rapidly.

You can see this when moist air in a warm room condenses onto a cold windowpane or when it condenses onto grass and leaves at night, forming dew. In the air the particles onto which water condenses are called cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Not just any particles will do. 000046 inch). This is because the saturation vapor pressure is higher over a curved water surface than over a flat one, and it increases as the curvature increases. It is known as the “curvature effect” and arises because the force that binds water molecules to one another is strongest on a flat surface and weakens as curvature of the surface increases.

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