Fire and Smoke: Understanding the Hazards by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life
By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Commission on Life Sciences, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Fire Toxicology
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Extra resources for Fire and Smoke: Understanding the Hazards
The modeling of such fires will not be considered further here. DETECTION MODELS Assume that a ceiling-mounted detector is a known distance from an initially small, growing fire. , on the detector response introduce complications. For the simplest case, one may assume a very large, flat-ceilinged room that contains both the fire and the detector. An algorithm has been worked out for this case and presented as a family of curves;31 it could easily be computerized. The critical fire size (the size when the detector goes off) depends on the following variables: • • • • Ceiling height above fire.
BURNING OF MULTIPLE ITEMS Most real fires involve several items. In some cases, the sequence of ignitions seems idiosyncratic--it is as easy to envision drapes igniting from a burning chair as the reverse. In other cases, however, the sequence is likely to be predictable--combustible materials, such as plastic pipe or wiring, behind a wall are much more likely to be exposed to heat from a fire in the room than to be ignited directly by a small ignition source. 12 About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files.
Most accidental fires involve such “diffusion” flames, as opposed to “premixed” flames. *Portions of this chapter have appeared in modified form in Clarke (copyright, 1986)50 and are published here with permission. About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted.