Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: by Gabriella Gonzalez, Lynn A. Karoly, Louay Constant, Hanine
By Gabriella Gonzalez, Lynn A. Karoly, Louay Constant, Hanine Salem, Charles A. Goldman
Summarizes the schooling and exertions industry tasks carried out or lower than method in 4 international locations within the Arab zone (Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates) to deal with the human source matters they each one face as they organize their nations for a spot within the twenty first century worldwide financial system. jointly, those nations spotlight the range of demanding situations confronted via international locations within the quarter and responses to these demanding situations.
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Extra info for Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates: Executive Summary
We deﬁne the public sector as those organizations that are exclusively government institutions, such as ministries and government councils. These are diﬀerent from state-owned enterprises, which are fully owned by the state. In the oil-dependent countries in our study, oil and gas companies are state-owned enterprises. 1 classiﬁes both public-sector institutions and stateowned enterprises as part of the public sector. The mixed sector consists Economic and Sociopolitical Context for Reform in the Four Study Countries 23 of establishments owned by the government in partnership with a local national or foreign entity (examples include Qatar Airways in Qatar and United Emirates Airline in the UAE, both of which are 50 percent state owned and 50 percent privately owned).
Unlike the Gulf countries in this study, Lebanon has not undertaken major reforms of its education and training systems or the labor market more generally. Instead, it has focused on economic recovery, part of which entails improving the eﬃciency of government. 4 summarizes the reform eﬀorts under way in Lebanon. 4 Summary of Education and Economic Reforms Under Way in Lebanon Reform Categories and Subcategories Education and training Primary and secondary education Participation in international assessments Labor market and economy Other economic reforms Divestment of government-owned companies Implementation of free trade agreements and free trade zones Training and other supports for more-efﬁcient public administration Human Resource Challenges and Reform Efforts 45 Lebanon has made important gains since the end of the civil war in 1990, but a number of challenges continue to jeopardize the sustainability of reforms put in place to date and the commitment to implement future reform programs: the ongoing instability in the internal political situation, as well as the spillover eﬀects of conﬂict in the region; the fragile state of the economic recovery, including the impact of public debt accumulation; and the shortage of qualiﬁed senior staﬀ in the government ministries who are capable of undertaking the reform activities.
S. a. 839 [high] Country UNDP HDI [classiﬁcation] SOURCES: GNI per capita, real GDP growth, and GDP contribution by sector are from World Bank, 2007, for Lebanon, Oman, and UAE; and from Qatar Planning Council, 2005b, p. 1, for Qatar. UNDP HDI ﬁgures are from UNDP, 2006, Table 1. a. = not available. GNI per capita was calculated using the World Bank Atlas method. percent real growth rate. Using a broader measure of development that captures life expectancy and education (measured by adult literacy and gross school enrollment at the primary, secondary, and postsecondary levels) in addition to the standard of living (measured by GDP per capita), the UNDP ranks Qatar, the UAE, and Oman as “high” human development countries and Lebanon as a “medium” human development country.