Exploring time, tense, and aspect in natural language by Ion Androutsopoulos
By Ion Androutsopoulos
Advances in temporal databases make it more and more more uncomplicated to shop time-dependent info, making a desire for amenities that would aid end-users entry this data. within the context of common language interplay, major attempt has been dedicated to interfaces that let database queries to be formulated in ordinary language. lots of the latest interfaces, besides the fact that, don't aid accurately the thought of time. Drawing upon stressful and point theories, temporal logics, and temporal databases, this cross-discipline ebook examines suitable matters from the 3 parts, constructing a unified theoretical framework that may be used to construct ordinary language interfaces to temporal databases. The framework gains an HPSG mapping from English to a officially outlined that means illustration language, and a corresponding mapping to a temporal extension of the SQL database language. The e-book is observed through a freely on hand prototype interface, outfitted in accordance with the framework, and applied utilizing Prolog and ALE. this can be an in-depth exploration of the idea of time in ordinary language database interfaces. will probably be relatively attention-grabbing to researchers engaged on typical language interplay, stressful and element, HPSG, temporal logics, and temporal databases, specifically those that desire to find out about time-related concerns in different disciplines.
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73). 73) is not really habitual, but iterative: servicing many times, as opposed to having a servicing habit. 74), however, the difference between habitual and iterative meaning is hard to define. 67) in an nlitdb, the theoretical framework of this book allows state verbs to be used in progressive forms, with the same meanings as the corresponding nonprogressive forms. 73) to receive two readings: one involving the habitual to service (servicing habitually in 1999), and one involving the nonhabitual to service (actually servicing at some time in 1999); the latter reading is more likely without the adverbial.
85) is unacceptable, because yesterday cannot contain the speech time. 91) is acceptable by most native English speakers, especially if the ever is added, even if the question is not uttered on a Sunday. 91) Has J. Adams (ever) inspected BA737 on a Sunday? 92) on a day other than Friday the 13th. 92) They have married on Friday 13th! One could attempt to formulate more elaborate restrictions, to predict exactly when temporal adverbials can be used with the present perfect. 86). The framework of this book adopts the latter approach.
Is typically uttered with a culminating activity view. In this case, an at adverbial usually specifies the time when the situation starts or is completed. ’ probably asks who started to run to the station or reached it at 5:00 pm. Some linguistic markers seem to signal which view the speaker has in mind. For example, the progressive usually signals a state view. ’ is typically uttered with a state view. In the progressive form, the running is simply ongoing at 5:00 pm; it does not start or finish at 5:00 pm.