Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (2nd Edition) by V. S. Ramachandran

By V. S. Ramachandran

The Encyclopedia of Human habit, moment version is an award-winning three-volume reference on human motion and response, and the recommendations, emotions, and physiological capabilities in the back of these activities. awarded alphabetically through identify, three hundred articles probe either enduring and intriguing new subject matters in physiological psychology, belief, character, irregular and medical psychology, cognition and studying, social psychology, developmental psychology, language, and utilized contexts.

Written through best scientists in those disciplines, each article has been peer-reviewed to set up readability, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. the main entire reference resource to supply either intensity and breadth to the research of human habit, the encyclopedia will back be a much-used reference resource. This set appeals to public, company, college and faculty libraries, libraries in two-year schools, and a few secondary schools.

Carefully crafted, good written, and punctiliously listed, the encyclopedia is helping users-whether they're scholars simply starting formal research of the extensive box or experts in a department of psychology-understand the sector and the way and why people behave as we do.

Named a 2013 impressive educational name by way of the yankee Library Association's selection publication
Concise entries (ten pages on regular) supply foundational wisdom of the field
Each article beneficial properties instructed additional readings, an inventory of comparable web content, a 5-10 be aware thesaurus and a definition paragraph, and cross-references to similar articles within the encyclopedi
Newly increased editorial board and a bunch of overseas members from the U.S., Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, eire, Israel, Japan, Sweden, and the uk

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Additional resources for Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (2nd Edition)

Example text

A person who emphasizes the motivation function of grades will evaluate the quality of grades differently from a person who puts emphasis on the allocation function. This example illustrates that the question of how good grades fulfill their functions cannot be answered by empirical studies alone but that the answer depends on ideological points of view. Indicators of Academic Achievement Much research has been devoted to the question of whether teachers’ grades actually measure students’ performance.

Because most of the underlying research uses designs that do not allow for unanimous causal interpretations, these factors are called ‘predictors’ rather than determinants or influences of academic achievement. Individual Student Characteristics Individual student characteristics are by far the most important predictors of differences in academic achievement. Taken together, individual characteristics such intelligence, motivation, and personality explain about half of the differences in scholastic performance.

Therefore, a plausible explanation for the association between high-stakes testing and student achievement is that nations more concerned with the quality of education make more use of high-stakes tests. The last reason might be that the use of high-stakes tests trains students to do better on standardized achievement tests as used in international scholastic achievement studies. For example, the typical type of tasks and answering formats in high-stakes tests and standardized achievement tests are very similar, so that regularly taking high-stakes tests at school will train students to do better on standardized achievement tests.

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