Earth's Climate: Past and Future by William F. Ruddiman
By William F. Ruddiman
The re-creation contains assurance of climatological occasions and study discoveries within the seven years because the first version, most significantly the now commonly authorised figuring out that people play an immense position in warming the planet. It additionally contains alterations designed to make the fabric extra available to an introductory-level audience.
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Additional resources for Earth's Climate: Past and Future
A small number of factors drive, or “force,” climate change. These factors cause interactions among the internal components of the climate system (air, water, ice, land surfaces, and vegetation). The results are the measurable variations known as climate responses. Changes in land surface 10 P A R T I • Framework of Climate Science evaporation, and winds. These processes extend from the warm tropics to the cold polar regions and from the Sun in outer space down into Earth’s atmosphere, deep into its oceans, and even beneath its bedrock surface.
At the other extreme, the response time of the climate system may be slower than the time scale of the changes in forcing (Figure 1-7B). In this case, there is little or no response to the climate forcing. This is equivalent to turning the Bunsen burner on and off so quickly that the temperature of the water in the beaker has no time to react. One example of this extreme case is a total solar eclipse, which blocks Earth’s only source of external heating for less than an hour. Air temperatures cool C H A P T E R 1 • Overview of Climate Science slightly during that brief interval, but then rise again.
This complexity can be thought of as the operation of a machine: the factors that drive climate change are the input, the climate system is the machine, and the variations in climate are the output. it occurs mainly by way of additions to the atmosphere of materials such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases, sulfate particles, and soot. Anthropogenic effects will be covered in Part V. 1-6 Climate System Responses The components of Earth’s climate system vary widely: global mean and regional temperatures, the extent of ice of various kinds, the amounts of rainfall and snowfall, the strength and direction of the wind, the circulation of water at the ocean’s surface and in its depths, and the types and amounts of vegetation.