Detection of Melt Ponds on Arctic Sea Ice with Optical by Anja Rösel
By Anja Rösel
The Arctic sea ice is characterised through profound alterations attributable to floor melting approaches and the formation of soften ponds in summer season. soften ponds give a contribution to the ice-albedo suggestions as they decrease the outside albedo of sea ice, and therefore speed up the decay of Arctic sea ice. To quantify the melting of the full Arctic sea ice, satellite tv for pc dependent observations are valuable. because of diversified spectral homes of snow, ice, and water, theoretically, multi-spectral optical sensors are useful for the research of those specified floor varieties. This learn demonstrates the opportunity of optical sensors to discover soften ponds on Arctic sea ice. For the 1st time, an Arctic-wide, multi-annual soften pond info set for the years 2000-2011 has been created and analyzed.
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Extra info for Detection of Melt Ponds on Arctic Sea Ice with Optical Satellite Data
Secondly, independent test data sets are selected. The results of the performance regarding consistence and accuracy of the ANN are presented in Sect. 1. The fractional coverage of water, ice, and melt ponds is derived for the entire Arctic by using the trained ANN and MOD09 surface reflectance mosaics. Subsequently, the sea ice concentration and the relative melt pond fraction is calculated using Eqs. 5), respectively. These results are described in Sect. 3. 2 Results In the following section we present the results of the study on MODIS surface reflectance data.
The gain values change as the detector looses responsivity and are issued as Calibration Parameter Files (CPF’s) updated for distinctive image acquisition time frames. php. DN min and DN max represent the minimum and the maximum quantized calibrated pixel value. Here we use DN min D 1 and DN max D 255; DN is the quantized calibrated pixel value in DN. 2) where R is the spectral radiance at the sensors aperture from Eq. 1), d is the distance Earth–sun in astronomical units, S is the mean solar exoatmospheric irradiance in W m 2 nm 1 , and cosÂ is the solar zenith angle in degrees (see Fig.
Convection and mixing of the water is additionally enhanced by wind . In late summer, melt ponds tend to melt down to sea level and drain towards the ocean. Mature ponds are effective traps for the first drifting snow. Through the capillar effect, the water level of the pond rises. Therefore, it is less likely that this particular area will be pond covered in the next melting season . Freeze-up starts in late August or early September, caused by low air temperatures. This results in a decreasing melt pond fraction.