Dance of the Photons: From Einstein to Quantum Teleportation by Anton Zeilinger
By Anton Zeilinger
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Extra resources for Dance of the Photons: From Einstein to Quantum Teleportation
After Thomas Young’s experiment, physicists no longer doubted that light consists of waves and not particles. LIGHT IS PARTICLES Then, in 1905, a completely unknown clerk at the Swiss patent office in Bern published a series of papers that changed the nature of physics. At that time, Albert Einstein was only twenty-six years old. In one of the papers, he proposed his relativity theory. But it is the first paper published in that year on which we focus now. ” In that paper, Einstein suddenly suggested that light is made of particles.
But it still would have to get out. Every surface has some attraction to electrons. This amount of attraction depends on the material of the surface, but the electron always needs some energy to overcome this attraction. So, what this all boils down to is the following. If we get lucky and the photon hits the electron in the right way, and if we get luckier still and the electron somehow does not lose all its energy inside the metal, the electron comes out with the original energy of the photon, reduced by the energy required to get out of the metal.
In the center of the wave packet, at the maximum, we have the highest likelihood of finding it. The wave packet concept implies that we cannot be certain of where to find the particle. Actually, we can find it anywhere within the wave packet, and when we do a specific measurement for a specific particle, it is just pure chance where exactly we find the particle within the wave packet. Figure 7. Various wave packets, which are built up by adding individual waves of different wavelengths together.