Computing methods and the phase problem in X-ray crystal by Ray, editor Pepinsky

By Ray, editor Pepinsky

Document of a convention held at GlasgowAugust, 1960

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Web search engines index much of the full text from billions of Web pages and serve hundreds of millions of users per day. They use rich features extracted from the graph structure and markups in hypertext corpora. Despite these advances, even the most popular search engines make us feel that we are searching with mere strings: we do not find direct expression of the entities involved in our information need, leave alone relations that must hold between those entities in a proper response. In a plenary talk at the 2004 World-wide Web Conference, Udi Manber commented: If music had been invented ten years ago along with the Web, we would all be playing one-string instruments (and not making great music).

Al [3] mentioned for the first time in the literature the notion of negative relationships. Their model is chi-square based. They use the statistical 30 Maria-Luiza Antonie and Osmar R. Zaïane test to verify the independence between two variables. To determine the nature (positive or negative) of the relationship, a correlation metric was used. In [6] the authors present a new idea to mine strong negative rules.

Then the data had to be painstakingly collected by hand since there was no alternative, but nowadays much data acquisition is automatic. This has various consequences. Firstly, astronomically vast data sets are readily acquired. g. [2],[3]), which is that particular data analytic discipline especially concerned with analysing large data sets, illustrate the sorts of sizes which are now being encountered. The word terabyte is no longer unusual. When I was taught statistical data analysis, I was taught that first one must familiarise oneself with one’s data: plot it this way and that, look for outliers and anomalies, fit simple models and examine diagnostics.

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