Comprehensive rock engineering : principles, practice and by E. Hoek, Evert. Hoek, John A. Hudson

By E. Hoek, Evert. Hoek, John A. Hudson

Floor and Underground venture Case Histories

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Hong Kong H o Chi M i n h City, Vietnam Shenyang, China D h a k a , Bangladesh A h m a d a b a d , India Tianjin, C h i n a Chengdu, China Shanghai, C h i n a Harbin, C h i n a Cairo, Egypt Alexandria, Egypt Pusan, South K o r e a Bangalore, India Casablanca, M o r o c c o Surabaya, Indonesia Teheran, Iran Lahore, Pakistan M a d r i d , Spain Bogota, C o l u m b i a Caracas, Venezuela Rangoon, Burma Delhi, India Calcutta, India Kinshasha, Zaire Bangkok, Thailand Wuhan, China Naples, Italy Lima, P e r u Manila, Philippines Barcelona, Spain M a d r a s , India Rome, Italy A n k a r a , Turkey Guangzhou, China Bucharest, R o m a n i a Taipei, Taiwan Kiev, USSR Seoul, South K o r e a Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Belo Horizonte, Brazil Beijing, China Santiago, Chile Guadalajara, Mexico City, Table 8 The Expanding Role of Rock Engineering in Developing Infrastructures 25 26 Overview of Underground Space and Developments It should be noted, however, that while the development of underground facilities in dense, urban areas may be driven by a desire to provide new services unobtrusively to an already crowded surface environment, these facilities (depending on purpose) may generate or reinforce pressures for additional development in the area rather than relieving development pressures.

It has been estimated that the total market in the developed Western world for all types of utility installation is approximately 500 000 kilometers per year with an approximate market value of US $25 billion annually. Utility tunnels include tunnels for the provision of water, the removal of sewage, electrical distribution, communications, and tunnels combining several services (termed utilidors). New reasons for urban tunnels include the need to separate storm and sanitary sewers and to provide increased storage capacity for wastewater prior to treatment.

Transportation tunnels may be used for roads, canals, railways or subways. There is little contemporary development of canals but the use of rock tunnels for roads, railways and subways continues to increase. Table 6 lists the world's longest railroad and motor-traffic tunnels and Table 5 lists the subway or metro systems which exist in major cities throughout the world. M a n y of the subway systems have been constructed in soil due to the geological circumstances discussed earlier. If bedrock is relatively close to the surface, however, newer lines may be excavated in rock to minimize surface disruption and to lower tunneling costs.

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