Climate Changes during the Holocene and their Impact on by Arie S. Issar

By Arie S. Issar

It really is now extensively authorised that expanding concentrations of greenhouse gases within the surroundings are inflicting larger worldwide temperatures. This quantity presents a complete evaluate of the consequences of weather variability on hydrological and human platforms within the Holocene (the final 10,000 years). The e-book concentrates at the areas bordering the Mediterranean Sea, western and principal Europe, China, Japan, West and South Africa and southwestern U.S.A. it truly is meant for researchers and pros in hydrology, climatology, geology and historic geography.

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This hypothesis does not have any archaeological evidence. Richard (1980, 1987) was one of the few archaeologists who came to the conclusion that it was a climate change that had such a destructive impact on the socio-economic systems of the Middle East. He concluded that, although amalgamation of a complex array of socio-economic and political factors must have occurred to terminate the EB urban life, probably the major factor was a shift in climate to drier conditions. This ecologically significant shift caused, either by itself or combined with an already weakened economy, the abandonment of sites.

4 CORRELATION BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGES AND HISTORICAL EVENTS IN THE LEVANT The climate changes derived from the curves presented in Figs. , 1989, 1992; Issar, 1990, 1995a,b; Issar and Makover-Levin, 1995). As will be shown presently, a rather good correlation was found. Consequently, it is suggested that the archaeological chrono-stratigraphy should be used as the paleo-climate stratigraphy of the Holocene for the Eastern Mediterranean region. One must be aware that the dating of the environmental time scale is mainly by 14 C methods whereas archaeological dates are also based on the history of civilizations, particularly those that left written documents.

Yet, according to the same data it was not as warm as EB IV but resembled a continuation of a warm phase. Deposition of sands and sandy silts in the bed of Nahal Lachish during MB I and MB II may also be interpreted as “rapidly fluctuating rainfall patterns interspersed with drought leading to soil stripping from the hill slopes” (Rosen, 1986, pp. 56–57). Neumann and Sigrit (1978) undertook a survey of references to barley harvest dates in the clay tablets of ancient Babylon. They concluded that the period 3800–3650 BP was warmer than at present, causing the harvest to start 10–20 days earlier than currently feasible.

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