Bone and Osteoarthritis (Topics in Bone Biology, 4) by Felix Bronner, Mary C. Farach-Carson

By Felix Bronner, Mary C. Farach-Carson

Bone and Osteoarthritis locations emphasis at the molecular and mobile occasions that bring about osteoarthritis, stressing the position of subchondral bone, which distinguishes this from different books at the illness. a unique element is the eye given to the prospective epigenetic foundation, including a dialogue of the genetics predisposing to osteoarthritis. exact analyses are given of the position of the synovium, of the molecular mechanisms that result in degradation of the cartilage matrix, of the hypertrophy of the cartilage mobilephone, of the anabolic and catabolic roles of cytokines, could lead on to novel methods to medical remedy, using anabolic mediators or molecules that concentrate on steps within the ailment procedure. additionally mentioned are animal versions and the way mechano-responsiveness is compromised by way of mechanical damage. Orthopedics and rheumatology became shut conceptually, as advances in bone and joint biology have enabled bench and translational scientists, in addition to practitioners, to technique scientific difficulties comprehensively. simply because bone performs a job in starting up osteoarthritis, healing techniques targeting bone tissue are integrated within the dialogue of novel remedies. the final subject of osteoarthritis is consequently a well timed topic for a chain on bone biology. This ebook, meant for clinicians, researchers and scholars, presents info that may orient the amateur and replace the expert. No different booklet treats the connection of bone to osteoarthritis in comparable style or offers a similar underpinning of joint pathophysiology.

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9 Osteoarthritis-Prevalence and Risk Factors It is well known that OA differs in men and women. Men younger than 50 tend to be most affected by OA, whereas, in people over 50, two thirds of the OA patients tend to be women [69]. The reason for this is unclear. Osteoarthritis in younger men is considered to be an occupational disease. In contrast, the high incidence in postmenopausal women suggests that the change in hormonal status may play a role in the OA process. However studies dealing with the protective effect of estrogens show conflicting results (reviewed in [67,95,203]).

Osteoarthritic subchondral osteoblasts produce variable total IGF-1 levels and less IGF binding proteins compared to normal [101,148,150]. This results in higher levels of free IGF-1 that seem to promote bone remodeling [101,147] and increase bone stiffness, a situation that exacerbates cartilage matrix degradation [54]. Both TGF- and IGF-1 are involved in matrix deposition and turnover, with TGF- stimulating matrix synthesis [175] and collagenase activity, whereas IGF-1 inhibits matrix development in bone cells [206].

Stove J, Gerlach C, Huch K, Gunther KP, Brenner R, Puhl W, Scharf HP (2001) Gene expression of stromelysin and aggrecan in osteoarthritic cartilage. Pathobiology 69:333–338. 90. Tan AL, Grainger AJ, Tanner SF, Shelley DM, Pease C, Emery P, McGonagle D (2005) High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of hand osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 52: 2355–2365. 91. Tehranzadeh J, Booya F, Root J (2005) Cartilage metabolism in osteoarthritis and the influence of viscosupplementation and steroid: a review.

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