Biotechnological applications of microalgae: biodiesel and by F Bux

By F Bux

"The e-book provides an in-depth research of microalgal biology, ecology, biotechnology and biofuel construction means in addition to an intensive dialogue at the worth extra items that may be generated from various microalgae. It summarizes the cutting-edge in microalgal biotechnology study, from microalgal pressure choice, microbiology, cultivation, harvesting, and processing. participants from the U.S., Africa,

"Preface Over the a long time, a lot of the literature has involved in the biology and ecological points of algae present in freshwater, marine, and brackish environments. those organisms also are identified to inhabit a variety of different environments in the world. extra lately, there was a considerable shift towards the idea that of sustainable improvement and the "green economic climate" with emphasis on exploiting organic platforms for the advantage of mankind. This underpins the basics of the sphere of biotechnology, which has revolutionized a variety of fields together with agriculture, nutrients, pharmaceutical and scientific sciences, environmental sciences, and business feedstock, hence certainly impacting such a lot spheres of human recreation. Algae--but extra in particular, microalgae--have been linked to complex occasions similar to algal blooms as a result of eutrophication of aquatic environments and sometimes the pollutants produced have critical future health affects at the aquatic setting, vegetation, animals, and people. even if, those occasions are principally because of human actions leading to the proliferation of foodstuff in aquatic environments. the importance of algae can't be underestimated as they give a contribution to nearly forty% of the oxygen within the surroundings, are the unique resource of fossil fuels, and are the first manufacturers within the oceans. as a result, there's capability for exploitation of this worthwhile biomass resource which may bring about sure environmental and fiscal advantages for man"-- Read more...

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Screening native algae for species with desirable traits provides a robust biological platform for bioresource production. 3 Comparison of Different Methods of Sourcing Algae Method/Source Merits Demerits Phycoprospecting • Vast diversity of species available • Adapted to local climates and outdoor cultivation • Adapted to local wastewaters and aquatic environments • Adapted to local biota • Native polycultures possible • May provide unique traits amenable to bioresource production • Applicable in any region regardless of access to culture collections • No charge for procurement • Screening practices must be intensive • Optimization may take dedicated breeding programs • Experiments based on multispecies consortia difficult to translate across laboratories Culture collections • Recognized organisms • Unialgal and axenic cultures • Allows comparison between laboratories • Can select for organisms known to produce lipids or high-value compounds • Easy handling • Lower cost of algal inoculant • Limited number of species available • Unadapted to local climates and outdoor cultivation • May not be able to grow on local wastes • Easily overtaken by native algae in open ponds • May invade local ecosystems Genetic engineering • Possibility of increased lipid productivity Production of high-value compounds • May simplify harvesting by excretion of lipids or high-value compounds Modification of traits to increase productivity • Limited genomic data for algal species • Unadapted to local climates and outdoor cultivation • High cost of development and containment • Negative public perception • Risk of genetic transfer • May invade local ecosystems Source: Adapted from Wilkie et al.

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(9): 2361–2372. M. (2007). Species boundaries and global biogeography of the Alexandrium tamarense complex (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology, 43: 1329–1338. Margalef, R. (1978). Life forms of phytoplankton as survival alternatives in an unstable environment. Oceanologica Acta, 1: 493–509. , and Powell, R. (1995). Recovery and phylogenetic analysis of novel archaeal rRNA sequences from deep sea deposit feeder. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61: 1646–1648.

Zea mays (maize) Glycine max (soya) Cyanophyta (cyanobacteria) Chlorophyta (green algae) Pyrrophyta (dinoflagellates) Labyrinthista 500 tonnes dry weight 300 tonnes dry weight 240 tonnes DHA oil 10 tonnes DHA oil 868 × 106 tonnes dry weight 259 × 106 tonnes dry weight USA a b Magnoliophyta (flowering plants) Magnoliophyta (flowering plants) USA, India, Israel USA USA Global production Global production Application Human nutrition Animal nutrition Cosmetics Phycobiliproteins Human nutrition Aquaculture Cosmetics Human nutrition Cosmetics β-Carotene Human nutrition Aquaculture Astaxanthin Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) oil Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) oil Human nutrition Animal nutrition Human nutrition Animal nutrition Adapted from Spolaore et al.

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