Biocatalysis for Green Chemistry and Chemical Process by Junhua (Alex) Tao, Romas Joseph Kazlauskas
By Junhua (Alex) Tao, Romas Joseph Kazlauskas
This ebook describes contemporary development in enzyme-driven eco-friendly syntheses of industrially very important molecules. the 1st 3 introductory chapters evaluation fresh technological advances in enzymes and cell-based ameliorations, and eco-friendly chemistry metrics for artificial potency. the rest chapters are directed to case stories in biotechnological construction of prescribed drugs (small molecules, traditional items and biologics), flavors, body spray and cosmetics, tremendous chemical compounds, value-added chemical substances from glucose and biomass, and polymeric materials.The publication is aimed to facilitate the economic purposes of this strong and rising eco-friendly know-how, and catalyze the development of the expertise itself.
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One possibility to overcome this issue is the design of strategies in which the fragments are joined at glycine, which is achiral, or proline, which does not form oxazolones. Depending on the desired sequence, this is not always possible, and other fragment condensations should be carefully optimized. During a solid-phase synthesis, the oxazolone issue is less critical, as N -urethaneprotected amino acids only form oxazolones when they are strongly activated. In addition, they are quite resistant to deprotonation, so that racemization during Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS) remains typically low.
Owing to the large number of isolation steps, it is also clear that the ecological footprint of such a liquid-phase peptide process is considerable, as it corresponds to the footprint of a standard organic synthesis, with the corresponding number of chemical steps. It is also important to mention that the overall peptide manufacturing process can be rather complex and always includes other critical steps in addition to the elongation of the peptide chain. 1 Technologies currently applied in the manufacturing of the commercial products grouped according to the length of the peptide chain.
Solid phase peptide synthesis I: the synthesis of a tetrapeptide. J Am Chem Soc 1963;85:2149–2154. 14. Bray BL. Large-scale manufacturing of peptide therapeutics by chemical synthesis. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2003;2:587–593. 15. Metha NM. Oral delivery and recombinant production of peptide hormones Part II: recombinant production of therapeutic peptides. BioPharm Inter 2004;17(7):44–46. 16. Leonhartsberger S. E. coli expression system efficiently secretes recombinant proteins into culture broth. Bioprocess Int 2006; April 64–66.