Automotive Exhaust Emissions and Energy Recovery by Apostolos Pesiridis
By Apostolos Pesiridis
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Extra resources for Automotive Exhaust Emissions and Energy Recovery
Particles are mainly formed during the mixing-controlled combustion phase [80, 81]. For both the investigated conditions the REF fuel shows a narrower peak with respect to RME fuelling, likely because of the longer RME main injection duration. The start of combustion (SOC) is determined by the analysis of the heat release rate (ROHR) trace. From a general point of view the start of combustion was detected when the energy release begins to exceed the energy losses due to the fuel evaporating process .
Copper (Cu) has been shown to have unwanted unregulated emissions and is no longer likely to be considered. In conjunction with postinjection assistance from the fuel system dosing rates may be a little as 3 ppm for Fe, 10 ppm Pt and 30 ppm Ce. This allows for the installation of enough stored FBC for the vehicle life. Peugeot introduced a DPF with an FBC (cerium) injected into the fuel for their largest Diesel car for Euro 3. The regeneration was assisted by a post-injection from the common rail fuel pump that temporarily increased the exhaust temperature.
A brief description of the main optical techniques used for NOx and soot particle detection in the combustion chamber is given in the follow. In-cylinder concentrations of nitric oxide can be obtained by laser-induced fluorescence measurements [38-45]. A laser was used to excite the species in a short UV wavelength range. From the analysis of two-dimensional imaging it is possible to have information about the location of NO formation. Laser induced incandescence, LII, allows to quantitative measure the soot volume fraction and the primary soot particle diameter.