Atmospheric pollution: history, science, and regulation by Professor Mark Z. Jacobson

By Professor Mark Z. Jacobson

This booklet presents a entire creation to the historical past and technological know-how of significant pollution matters. It starts off with an advent to the fundamental atmospheric chemistry and the background of discovery of chemical substances within the surroundings, after which strikes directly to a dialogue of the evolution of the earth's surroundings, and the constitution and composition of the present-day surroundings. It additionally bargains a complete and available dialogue of the 5 significant atmospheric toxins themes: city open air pollution, indoor pollution, acid deposition, stratospheric ozone relief, and worldwide weather swap.

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Additional H and He were lost from the Earth’s first atmosphere after escaping the 38 ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION: HISTORY, SCIENCE, AND REGULATION Earth’s gravitational field. As a result of these two loss processes (solar wind stripping and gravitational escape), the ratios of H and He to other elements in the Earth’s atmosphere today are less than are the corresponding ratios in the sun. 1. Solid-Earth Formation The rock-forming elements that reached the Earth reacted to form compounds with different melting points, densities, and chemical reactivities.

Some interstellar material aggregated to form a cloudy mass, the solar nebula. The composition of the solar nebula was the same as that of 95 percent of the other stars in the universe. Gravitational collapse of the solar nebula resulted in the formation of the sun. 1. 0 26,000:1 29,000:1 53,000:1 260,000:1 306,000:1 413,000:1 433,000:1 Rock-forming elements. All other elements vaporize more readily. Adapted from Goody (1995). 1. Structure of the sun. Today, the sun is divided into concentric layers, including interior and atmospheric layers.

Berzelius’s most noticeable achievement was to invent a system of chemical symbols and notation. For elements, he used the first one or two letters of the element’s Latin or Greek name. For example, oxygen was denoted with an O, hydrogen with an H, mercury with Hg (hydrargyrum), and lead with Pb (plumbum). For compounds with more than one atom of an element, he identified the number of atoms of the element with a subscript. For example, he identified water with H2O. 3. Elemental Bromine and Hypochlorous Acid (Gas) In 1826, Antoine–Jérôme Balard (1802–1876), a French apothecary, accidentally discovered the element bromine (Br) after analyzing the “bittern” (saline liquor) that remained after common salt had crystallized out of concentrated water in a salt marsh near the Mediterannean sea.

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