Atlas of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis, 3rd Edition by Rene Rizzoli
By Rene Rizzoli
René Rizzoli Menopause is the time in a woman’s lifestyles whilst reproductive potential ends. Ovaries lessen their job and the creation of intercourse hormones ceases. this era might be linked to a wide number of signs affecting the cardiovascular and urogenital platforms, in addition to epidermis, hair and bone. Bone capital is gathered by means of the tip of the second one decade and continues to be roughly consistent as much as the time of menopause. intercourse hormone deficiency results in sped up bone turnover, a unfavorable stability and microarchitectural deterioration, which compromises bone power, thereby expanding bone fragility and, hence, fracture possibility. by way of the age of eighty, it really is expected that fifty% of trab- ular bone can have been misplaced. normal menopause happens among the a long time of forty five and fifty four years worldwide. This age doesn't seem to have replaced considerably over the centuries. by contrast, because the heart of the nineteenth century, existence expectancy, really in girls, has elevated significantly, with most girls residing to the age of eighty years or extra in lots of areas of the area. which means on the age of fifty years, a girl will dwell for greater than 30 years with out bone safeguard by way of intercourse hormones. This r- resents greater than one-third of a woman’s existence. on the age of fifty years, the lifetime chance to event a fracture is set 50% (ie, one out of 2 ladies could have a fracture in this period).
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Extra info for Atlas of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis, 3rd Edition
5 for low bone mineral density (BMD), presence of prior fracture and above premenopausal values for type 1 C-telopeptide (CTX) breakdown products, low BMD plus prior fracture, low BMD plus high CTX, prior fracture plus high CTX, and all of the above. The results showed that age is an important determinant of fracture probability, but at any given age the presence of a single risk factor is associated with a doubling of the 10-year probability, and this increases markedly when risk factors are combined.
Krishnan V, Oniya JE et al. Osteoblast apoptosis and bone turnover. J Bone Miner Res 2001; 16:975–84. Hofbauer LC, Gori F, Riggs BL et al. Stimulation of osteoprotegerin ligand and inhibition of osteoprotegerin production by glucocorticoids in human osteoblastic lineage cells: potential paracrine mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Endocrinology 1999; 140:4382–9. Johnston CC, Miller JZ, Slemenda CW et al. Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. N Engl J Med 1992; 327:82–7.
R. uk/FRAX]. 13) can be used with or without bone mineral density to estimate the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture (hip, spine, wrist, and humerus) or of hip fracture alone [Kanis et al. 2008]. 14), and in the incidence of osteoporotic fracture. In the US, postmenopausal osteoporosis has repeatedly been noted to be more common in white non-Hispanic women and in Asian women than it is in Hispanic women and African-American women [National Osteoporosis Foundation, 1997]. This may be explained by the higher peak bone mass achieved before the menopause in African-American women.