Applied Ecology and Environmental Management, Second Edition by Edward I. Newman(auth.)

By Edward I. Newman(auth.)

Content material:
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–6):
Chapter 2 power, Carbon stability and international weather swap (pages 7–47):
Chapter three Water (pages 48–78):
Chapter four Soil (pages 79–116):
Chapter five Fish from the ocean (pages 117–144):
Chapter 6 administration of Grazing Lands (pages 145–171):
Chapter 7 administration of Forests (pages 172–204):
Chapter eight Pest regulate (pages 205–244):
Chapter nine pollutants (pages 245–280):
Chapter 10 Conservation and administration of untamed Species (pages 281–321):
Chapter eleven recovery of groups (pages 322–344):

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37 ENERGY, CARBON A N D CLIMATE C H A N G E Fig. 6 Past and present distributions of three small mammal species, 13-lined ground squirrel (left-handpicture], long-tailed shrew and Hudson Bay collared lemming (right-hand picture). 0 Site at which bones of all three species, dating from 18 to 10 000 BP, occur together. Shading and hatching: present distributions. From Graham (1997). Past migrations and extinctions We know of examples of all three occurring as the world warmed after the last Ice Age.

This problem applies to many other species: Cain et al. gave an extensive list of the maximum seed dispersal of other species, reported in the literature, whch shows that seeds of most herbaceous species travel less than 100 m, though a few can sometimes travel several kilometres. 13 shows the maximum distance that seeds of some common tree species have been reported to travel from the tree. 12. 6 * Excluding bats. Picture: bluejay carrying acorn. Datafrom Cain et al. (1998). Dispersalby birds Post range changes of unimds to travel far enough to account for its past spread.

Evidently some farmers will have to change the crops they grow. Changing to a new variety of the same species may be satisfactory for some crops. The response of wheat to higher temperatures (see earlier) indicates that farmers in a particular area will need different varieties which can maintain their canopy long enough in the warmer climate. For wheat, existing varieties from further south may well be satisfactory, but for some other species a new variety may need to be bred, since the combination of temperature and day length may never have existed previously.

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