Analog Test Signal Generation Using Periodic ΣΔ-Encoded Data by Benoit Dufort
By Benoit Dufort
Analog try out sign iteration utilizing Periodic SigmaDelta-Encoded Data Streams offers a brand new way to generate prime quality analog signs with low complexity. The thought of periodic SigmaDelta-encoded bitstreams is gifted alongside with a suite of empirical tables to assist decide on the right parameters of a bitstream. An optimization strategy can be defined to assist choose a section series with the specified attributes. a wide number of signs may be generated utilizing this strategy. Silicon implementation matters are mentioned with a selected emphasis on zone overhead and straightforwardness of layout. One FPGA circuit and 3 various silicon implementations are awarded in addition to experimental effects. it truly is proven that straightforward designs are in a position to producing very excessive precision signals-on-chip. The strategy is additional prolonged to multi-bit sign new release the place it really is proven the way to elevate the functionality of arbitrary waveform, turbines normally present in prior and present-day mixed-signal testers. No adjustments are required, simply the numbers in reminiscence are replaced. 3 varied calibration strategies to lessen the results of the AWG's non-linearities also are brought, including assisting experimental proof.
the main target of this article is to explain an area-efficient method for analog sign iteration utilizing SigmaDelta-encoded information circulation. The major features of the process are:
- excessive caliber signs (SFDR of a hundred and ten dB observed);
- huge number of signs generated;
- Bitstreams simply got with a quick optimization software;
- strong frequency answer, appropriate with coherent sampling;
- easy and quick undefined implementation;
- commonly electronic, other than an simply testable 1-bit DAC and doubtless a reconstruction filter out;
- reminiscence already on hand on-chip may be reused, decreasing quarter overhead;
- Designs may be included into present CAD instruments;
- excessive frequency new release.
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Extra info for Analog Test Signal Generation Using Periodic ΣΔ-Encoded Data Streams
Here it was suggested that the output of the DAC could be connected directly to the input of the ADC in a loop-back configuration. Digitally generated signals from an on-chip Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) would be converted into analog form by the DAC circuit where it would then excite the ADC circuit. The digital ADC output would be collected and compared to a digital signature stored onchip in memory. Unfortunately, the drawbacks to the HBIST approach make it impractical for production testing for the following reasons: (I) complementary errors in both the ADC and DAC circuit can mask one another resulting in bad devices being passed as good, (2) comparing the analog response with a digital signature ignores the fact that the response will vary with different devices and circuit conditions, and (3) the tests being performed are not the same as those performed in production.
Hence, we can expect a 12 dB improvement in SNR with 16 times OSR. Interesting enough, our simulations results given in Fig. 3-5 agree quite closely with this result. 2 dB when the OSR is increased by a factor of 16. Practically speaking, one can expect the OSR to be no greater than 100 or 200. This, in tum, will limit the improvement in SNR to about 20 to 25 dB or add 3 or 4 extra bits of resolution. 1 modulators, on the other hand, take it one step further. 2dB OSR=16 N=8192 (a) (b) Figure 3-5: Oversampling example: (a) Nyquist conversion; (b) Oversampled conversion quantization noise out of the band of interest to other frequencies.
42) are plotted for different values of N in Figure 3-16. 8. As expected, the SFDR keeps increasing as we increase the bit stream length N. The SNR, on the other hand, stays constant with N due to the constant power in-band. 23) which shows that increasing N reduces the noise floor level but keeps the total noise power constant. Variations in SNR are observed for very short bit streams, due to the very small number of harmonics in band. 5 Windowing It has been described in the previous sub-section how noise spreading will atTect the SNR and SFDR of a bit stream.