An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics by David G. Andrews
By David G. Andrews
A quantitative advent to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual rules. This variation has been introduced thoroughly updated, and now contains a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather swap which builds upon fabric brought in prior chapters, giving the scholar a extensive knowing of a few of the actual techniques underlying this most vital and topical topic. not like many different books on atmospheric technological know-how, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric purposes are built often within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The ebook is a necessary source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technology, meteorology, physics, Earth technology, planetary technology, or utilized arithmetic direction.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics
10 are two other sets of curves, related to moisture. The ﬁrst are the lines of constant saturation mixing ratio μs (T, p): these are almost straight and are drawn dashed. 42) if an accurate expression for es (T) is known. Also plotted are the saturated adiabatics; these are noticeably curved. Each saturated adiabatic can be labelled by the temperature at which it cuts the p = 1000 hPa surface (the wet-bulb potential temperature θw ) or the potential temperature which it approaches at low p (the equivalent potential temperature θe ).
9. 2 that water vapour is a minor constituent of the atmosphere. 03), water vapour plays a crucial role in weather and climate processes. 1. 33 Fig. 5 Moisture in the atmosphere The phase transition between liquid and vapour, portrayed in a schematic temperature–pressure diagram. The curve indicates the temperature variation of the saturation vapour pressure. and liquid phases, with important chemical reactions that lead to the depletion of polar ozone (see Chapter 6). In the remainder of this chapter we consider the precipitation properties of water vapour; these result from the physical fact that, at terrestrial atmospheric temperatures and pressures, water undergoes phase changes between the vapour, liquid and solid states.
56) is negative or zero, so that β ≤ 0 and the curve of G(r) has no turning point other than a = 0. However, if 44 Fig. 11 Atmospheric thermodynamics A schematic plot of the Gibbs free energy G as a function of the droplet radius, for RH = e/es = 90% and 110%. 57). e > es (T) (indicating supersaturated conditions), then the logarithm is positive, β > 0, and there is a maximum of G at a radius a given by a= 2α 2γ = . 57) This is known as Kelvin’s formula; it may also be written in the form e = es (T) exp A a where A = 2γ .