Air Pollution: Measurement, Modelling and Mitigation by Jeremy Colls

By Jeremy Colls

A one cease, accomplished textbook, protecting the 3 crucial elements of pollution technology. The 3rd variation has been up-to-date with the newest advancements, in particular the inclusion of latest details at the position of air toxins in weather swap. The authors supply better insurance to the constructing economies worldwide the place pollution difficulties are at the upward thrust.

The 3rd variation keeps to hide a variety of air caliber matters, preserving a quantitative viewpoint. subject matters coated contain - gaseous and particulate air toxins, dimension ideas, meteorology and dispersion modelling, cellular resources, indoor air, results on crops, fabrics, people and animals. relocating clear of classical poisonous air pollution, there's a bankruptcy on weather swap and one other at the depletion of stratospheric ozone. a distinct characteristic of this new version is the inclusion of a clean bankruptcy on pollution mitigation by means of plants, commonly its function in preserving a sustainable city setting.

Recommended for upper-level undergraduate and postgraduate classes specialising in pollution, either for environmental scientists and engineers. the recent fabric incorporated within the 3rd version extends its use via practitioners in consultancies or neighborhood authorities.

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Example text

2 toe in India. Developing countries also offer very different fuel combustion profiles, especially in the domestic sector. Whereas domestic energy supply in developed countries is likely to be from burning gas in a centralised boiler for a central heating system, developing countries are much more likely to be using fuels such as kerosene, wood, roots, crop residues or animal dung. Furthermore, these are likely to be burnt in an unflued indoor stove with poor combustion efficiency. Hence the potential for pollutant emissions and enhanced indoor pollutant concentrations is much greater.

This rapidly increasing population has also been increasing its standard of living, underpinned by energy obtained from fossil fuels – initially from coal burning and later by oil and gas. 2 The growth of world population between 1950 and 2050. Source: US Census Bureau, International Data Base, December 2008 update. 6 Typical energy contents of widely-used fuels Energy source Energy density (MJ kg –1) Natural gas 51 Petroleum 37 Coal Anthracite 30 Bituminous 30 Sub-bituminous (brown) 20 Lignite 10–15 Animal dung (dry weight) 17 Wood (dry weight) 15 stabilised the use per person after 1970, the continuing increase in total population is still driving up the total energy use.

Coal is the fuel that underpinned successive industrial revolutions from the Bronze Age through to the eighteenth century. It is the most abundant fossil fuel, with huge reserves of some 1000 billion tonnes that are expected to last another 300 years at present rates of use. What were originally peat deposits became buried and compressed under accumulating sediments. The increased pressure and temperature caused the peat to pass through a series of stages called the coal series, characterised by decreasing moisture content and volatiles and a higher carbon content.

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