A Functional Approach to Syntax In Generative Description of by Petr Sgall, Ladislav Nebeský, Alla Goralčíková, Eva Hajičová

By Petr Sgall, Ladislav Nebeský, Alla Goralčíková, Eva Hajičová

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1 . It is well known that English differs from most European languages in respect of those properties of verbal constructions that are discussed by Fillmore ; not only the wide use and the distribution of prepositions (cf. Zimmermann, 1967), but also such features as the relatively free rules of passivization (con­ nected with the possibility of a Locative becoming Subject, in the terminology of the quoted studies), or the identity of the verbal forms in cases such as the following belong to the peculiarities of English : he opens the door with that key; that key will open the door; the door opens.

For Czech, these questions of verbal constructions have not yet been stud­ ied systematically,9 and it would be premature to attempt to solve them here. g. a vocative ; see Section 3 . 1), namely Ra, Ru, Rm, Rn and Rv, respec­ tively. 2), characterize the semantically different types of free modification (and of some other relations). We are aware of the unclear status of such units as "instrument" or "interest" treated as such suffixes here ; if it proves useful to work with "indirect object", "Benefactive", etc.

The elementary units of the morphemic level are the semes. ). The relations of type C on this level are similar to those on the phonetic level (cf. Section 2. 2). The complex units of the two levels of sentence structure were set forth in Section 2. 1 . 3 . The relation o f realization i s a many-to-many relation, on account o f what is called asymmetrical dualism. So there exist sentences that are homony­ mous or synonymous at different levels. Moreover, it is possible, for example , that a single proposition has two different representations on the pheno­ grammatical level or on that of morphemics, and both are realized by the same phonetic means - cf.

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