## A Brief History of Computing by Gerard O'Regan

By Gerard O'Regan

This complete ebook presents an advent into the major themes within the background of computing in an easy-to-follow and concise demeanour. It doesn't require experiences in computing device technology as a way to be understood and preferred. The publication covers major parts and occasions within the box from the beginnings of computation in 3000B.C. via to the current day. precious pedagogical components resembling routines and bankruptcy summaries are integrated. targeting the elemental components within the computing box, this basically written and broad-ranging textual content will capture the eye and significantly gain laptop technological know-how scholars.

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9 Summary 25 3. Discuss the nature of an algorithm and its importance in computing. Describe any algorithm that you are familiar and implement in a programming language of your choice. 4. Discuss the working of an abacus and its application to calculation. 5. Discuss syllogistic logic and identify strengths and weaknesses of the logic. Discuss the similarities and differences between syllogistic logic and propositional and predicate logic. 9 Summary The last decades of the twentieth century have witnessed a proliferation of high-tech computers, mobile phones, and information technology.

Hui seems to have been familiar with the idea of a limit, as his approximation to π is achieved using an iterative approach with each iteration achieving a closer approximation to π. The Chinese made contributions to number theory including the summation of arithmetic series and solving simultaneous congruences. The Chinese remainder theorem deals with finding the solutions to a set of simultaneous congruences in modular arithmetic. Chinese astronomers made accurate observations which were used to produce a new calendar in the sixth century.

Plaintext) simply involves looking up each letter in the plaintext and writing down the corresponding cipher letter. , for each cipher letter the corresponding plaintext letter is identified from the table. Cipher Text Plaintext vxpphu vrovwleh Summer Solstice The encryption can also be represented using modular arithmetic by first using the numbers 0–25 to represent the alphabet letters, and then using addition (modula 26) to perform the encryption. That is, the encoding of the plaintext letter represented by the number x is given by: c = x + 3 (mod 26) Similarly, the decoding of a cipher letter represented by the number c is given by: x = c − 3 (mod 26) The emperor Augustus24 employed a similar substitution cipher (with a shift key of 1).