101 Defenses: How the Mind Shields Itself by Jerome S. Blackman

By Jerome S. Blackman

Defenses are psychological operations that repair or keep psychic equilibrium while humans consider that they can not deal with feelings that stem from clash; they get rid of parts of disagreeable feelings from unsleeping know-how. for instance, utilizing intercourse, foodstuff, or hostility to alleviate rigidity - that's a safeguard - catalogued right here as access quantity sixty eight: Impulsivity. Screaming at a person could be a security. taking part in golfing could be a safeguard. So can saving cash. Or not less than all of those actions may perhaps contain defenses. during this booklet, Blackman catalogs one zero one defenses - the main ever compiled - with descriptions functional to be used in daily overview and therapy of psychopathology. He explains tips to observe and interpret a safety and provides supportive remedy ideas. the various sensible suggestions interspersed all through this article make it an outstanding reference software for college kids and skilled clinicians, whereas the ordinary positive aspects enable all readers to event how mental defenses function in way of life.

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The reactionformations cause them, contrarily, to act in a manner that is overly courteous and punctual, workaholic and stingy, and overly calm, respectively. Because of their conflicts between anger and self-criticism, some obsessional people can be duped by psychopaths who “play the game” of timeliness and courtesy. Honest, affectionate friends who are late or imperfect may be rejected because the perfectionist becomes angry (and insulted) when the defenses are disrupted. Being “nice” to patients may also involve a reaction-formation, especially if the therapist should be aware of irritation.

38. Identification with the Introject (Sandler, 1960) In latency, after you form an image of someone, you wind up making that image part of your superego. In pathological adult situations, if people incorporate a deceased but unconsciously hated loved one’s character traits into their self-image, they may then turn the unconscious hate on themselves, creating a reactive depression (Freud, 1917; Volkan, 1987a). Further, when a therapist’s self-image transiently “absorbs” aspects of a patient’s (already introjected) image, the therapist can develop countertransference (what Racker [1953] calls a “concordant identification”).

Because of her “acting out,” Wotan punishes her with loss of divinity and with sleep until awakened by any man. DEFENSES THAT ARISE IN PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT 41 Brünnhilde identified with her father’s wishes, which he had been forced to give up due to (externalized) punishment. She acts out the father’s suppressed wishes, and then he punishes her, instead of him being punished by his wife. Interestingly, Brünnhilde points these dynamics out to Wotan before he consummates her punishment. He acknowledges the correctness of her interpretation, and then punishes her less severely.

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